What are Drivers

Software program that gives your operating information about the particular device. These devices are called Peripherals. A Peripheral is anything other than the CPU. The OS has to have information about the device in order to make it available to be used

(video, sound, USB ect. )

What’s  OBEX

(Object exchange) is a protocol for the wireless exchange of data between devices. OBEX has been built into various different kinds of hardware, starting with PDA devices.

What is Firmware?

is a software program permanently etched into a hardware device such as a keyboards, hard drive, BIOS, or video cards. It is programmed to give permanent instructions to communicate with other devices and perform functions like basic input/output tasks. Firmware is typically stored in the flash ROM (read only memory) of a hardware device. It can be erased and rewritten.

Phishing/ Spear Phishing/ Spoofing

Phishing is a form of fraud in which the attacker tries to learn information such as login credentials or account information by masquerading as a reputable entity or person in email, IM or other communication channels. Most often the victim receives a message seemingly from a known person, the message will usually have an attachment or link (if opened or clicked) will install malware or direct you to an infected website.

Spear phishing is an email-spoofing attack that targets a specific organization or individual, seeking unauthorized access to sensitive information. Spear-phishing attempts are not typically initiated by random hackers, but are more likely to be conducted by perpetrators out for financial gain, trade secrets or military information.

Email Spoofing emails that appear to come from a known person or organization, the intent is to get the user to follow steps in the email (usually going after logon credentials or account info).

The attacker (or spoofer) knows that if the recipient receives a spoofed email that appears to be from a known source, it is likely to be opened and acted upon. So a spoofed email may also contain additional threats like Trojans or other viruses. These programs can cause significant computer damage by triggering unexpected activities, remote access, deletion of files and more. There are several ways to spoof. IP spoofing, email spoofing, website spoofing, content spoofing

Trojan horse

A Trojan horse is a seemingly benign program that when activated, causes harm to a computer system.


The following are types of trojan horses:

  • Backdoor Trojan: opens a back door for a user to access a victim’s system at a later time
  • Downloader: This Trojan downloads malicious software and causes harm to the victim’s computer system.
  • Infostealer: This Trojan attempts to steal information from the victim’s computer.(key logger)
  • Remote Access Trojan (RAT): This can be hidden in games or other programs of a smaller variety and give the attacker control of the victim’s computer.
  • Data Sending Trojan: This gives the perpetrator sensitive information like passwords or other information programmed to be hijacked.
  • Destructive Trojan: This destroys the victim’s files.
  • Proxy Trojan: As a proxy server, this allows the attacker to hijack a victim’s computer and conduct illegal activities from the victim’s computer.